Counting in Basa Bali: What Balinese are counting.


The Following is intended as an educational guide for those interested in Maori and Polynesia and teaching or learning the languages or ancient history of the area that could have been Hawaiki.

Here are descriptions of how the original counting systems originated in the Maori language. Although this is mostly New Zealand and Cook Islands Maori there is an ancient connection with Japanese language (Nihongo), South American, southern Asian, all the other Polynesian and some Melanesian dialects. The system of counting dates back to the beginning of the known world when Gods ruled their domains. The counting system of Polynesia and all languages around the Pacific rim and indeed the whole world contain words developed from the day to day dealings with those Gods. Not only is this counting system numerical but the numbers are systemic actual words with specific meanings in the Polynesian dialects that when dictated in successive order are precursors for a set of rules. Polynesian counting predicates what will happen and what to do should 'Ru the God of Earthquakes' pay a visit. In this case it is the importance of the rules and their order of succession that precedes any numerical value. It may well have been a tool developed specifically for training the tamariki (children) on what to do when such an event arises. The simplicity of this counting system also suggests it dates back to the dawn of mankind at a time when the Earth was continuously undergoing great upheavals through both tectonic movements and volcanic eruptions.

At present it is presumed pronunciation of the words are already known or you have access to such information. I have covered basic pronunciations with my correct use of some alphabets in "Rorokai". Ru is also covered more in "Rorokai" within my explanatory version of Atlantis.
Man and his Environment - man-made mounds an attempt to emulate Ra
Dakota ha-ko-ta; ha- breath; haha- leaning inclined; ko- pole, stick put into ground; ta- the, hit down; hako- heaped up, erect, shovel, whakahako, bedeck oneself, hakohako, fly unswerving direct (see Tua ao oa oka a vau u vau); kota- open crack gape; kotae, kotai- alluvial soil. From the above transliterations it would seem that the word Dakota refers to man-made mound building. Ko originally was what was used to separate Ku (Earth Mother) and Ra (Sky Father). The building of mounds could relate to this (Kata Tjuta). Mounds could have had various scientific purposes. One of which could have been to emulate the natural breaking down of basalt rock deposits to form alluvial soils providing fertilization and minerals to the surrounding fields. Potassium nitrate deposits existed near the Georgia mounds. If the name Dakota were to relate to a farming practice how come it is now said that it means friend or allies. One possibility is that people are brought together and kept together in order to build the mounds. Afterward the mounds could have been used for ceremonial gatherings. Another reason for the names existence could come from the above farming explanation. When someone or a group of people built up with arrogance (mound heaped up) are broken down they can then become cooperative again. Resolving conflicts caused by the actions of the arrogant oppressing the others in this manner is one way of developing a friend or friends . From this leveling comes a beneficial allied future ie. kotae, kotai, properties of alluvial soil. On the level plains men should be able to share the abundant resources in peace.)

The above is a process of thought and may or may not be related to the origination of the present language. At present the following fits the transliteration better

Da-ko-ta (Sioux) friend, ally = Ta-ko-ha (M.) free from fear or suspicion, spread about scattered; pledge, token, gift; whare tako common meeting house in village; tako peeled off; Rangi tako clear sky.
Some Maori tribes called out, "E Ta!" when approaching a friend. All these translations are characteristics or behaviours of friends or allies and these words fit United States aboriginal customs and religions. In Polynesia and elsewhere dialects often reverse the order of syllables. The question here: Is da equal to ha or ta or another word?

to walk with a pole inside
you do not need to hide
to sit inside a mountain
you take from the fear

mitau oyasin matau ki o ia tino
mitakuye oyasin
God and His Environment - natural
Himalaya hi-ma-ra-i-a; hi-pull up; ma-acted upon by, consequence of, come, go, clear, Ra- Sky god; i-positive; a-there is; ia- ; rahi- great, size; rahinga- largeness, abundance; raia- interogative giving emphasis

Pilgrim peregurima go-darkness-prayer-
i travelled abroad to where i could afford
i looked in the sea and saw naught
i grew my hair, it was not there
i turned about and gave a shout
i looked in the sky, he did not deny
singing a song will make you strong
but am i right or am i wrong
i will ask to know, for what i do know
and is certain
plenty more awaits in store

This is the personal work of Paul Pearce.
I had previously asked for feed back in my guest book but received none. Due to people hacking this site via a fault in the client ftp and stealing bandwidth the guest book has been removed. In the meantime I am happy for you to use this knowledge for free, especially for those Polynesians who were unaware or forgot this information in their hectic lifestyles over the recent decades. I believe the following could be used by Kapa hapa or mapu for re-enactments or similar. ie. children acting as villagers, one child acting as Ru who steals and kills, the survivors hui and the following ihu, and an orator for the story. However if the use of this material is for pecuniary action I (a poor man) would not be happy as I have seen fit to provide this information free and would appreciate some royalty from sales as well. Indeed I am intending on submitting this to a publisher myself for a children's book.

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All English translations have been established with the Dictionary of Maori Language (Williams 1971) and through point of sensibility I will not reference every word. Where there are other languages involved they will be indicated by the language in brackets. I would like to acknowledge W. Williams (1844) and his predecessors for I believe they were led by God to undertake important work in recording not only a language but an important linguistic history for much of mankind. The various English translations for all the individual words (all built from single syllables) are accompanied by a general statement, some of which are also direct translations of the built syllabic word.







Closest Translations

to Maori (M.).

Maori Numbers

Reasoning for word used in English, using

definitions of translations from Maori and Basa Dictionaries.





A Siki

Iki or Tiki or



Iki, sweep away, clear off; consume, devour, devastate (M.).

Aamiki to gather up, make a clean sweep, tahinga to sweep (hit down-pull up-The). In other languages to be covered siki and miki also mean buttocks or posterior (M.). The a prefix is added to numerals from one to ten in Tahitian counting .

Tiki personification of man. Ti overcome. Unsuccessful people because of their irreverence and over population. Instigating Ru is a necessary control mechanism of Ra to stop the spread of corruption [arei e taka].

Sickle [Origin: bef. 1000; ME sikel, OE sicol; c. D zikkel, G Sichel, all ≪ L secula, equiv. to sec(āre) to cut + -ula -ule];??? Ura red, glow. U Ra God Says, arrive by water (M.) Ulu knife (Enuit) U Ru (M.)
Tahi = tai > tatai [stroke with a weapon, tactical -stroke to legs with taiaha?] saai (left, swish back and forth, saai meu [left hand] - Thai/Lao. rice harvesting culture) > Sythe, carried by Death = saai-tahe saai-taha saai-tahae(see japanese counting system). From this we can deduce that the Maori fighting tactic was tatai tahae, to swish the weapon back and forth until the opposition was distracted then strike unexpectedly like Ru manu, the king of thieves, Ru Death= He-a-tahae, what time coming?: John 10"Heoi ano ta te tahae e haere mai ai, he tahae, he patu, he whakamoti hoki: i haere mai ahau kia whiwhi ai ratou ki te ora, ina, tona nui noa atu..,U Iesu" The Ferryman? Ru takes in his canoe, rummage (Eng.), arummage, arrumer, to stow goods in the hold of a ship (French)= Room = ru-im D. raum G. rau-im?, im-lau = full of stomach, satisfied (Lao)><(related numerous) rau, whakarau, whakaraurau. .

Arumm -age =-ate[Origin: < L -ātus (masc.), -āta (fem.), -ātum (neut.), equiv. to -ā- thematic vowel + -tus, -ta, -tum ptp. suffix]

A-u-e alas [a ra he]; atus [a tu he = a ta] A Ru ma ma atu
die =dtaai =he-taai > taihe Ch. phylosophy? at point of passing over at one with universe, . = hai principal stone in game in ruru, hei (iii), deyja = hei-ta kur-dai-tcha = kura (ornamented with feathers, knowledge of karakia,-hai?hei-ta = how to kill >subject Kuraruraru perplexed, bothered; raru, in difficulty





Kari he or

Kari hi


Kari rush down violently upon, he wipe away.

Karihi are the sinkers on a drag net [pulled along bottom, the people who were not swimmers]

Dua could have developed from the introduction of Islam, where reciting a prayer at this point would have preference over the coming of Ru which in turn evolved to replace the memory of the more ancient judgment of Ra and the coming of Ru.
If da syllables here are related to the Australian Kuku Yulanji would imply this translates as Maori, hua meaning, name, call by name, which could possibly imply 'the one' as with Islamic dua. In Fiji, dua is the number 'one' equal to the Polynesian 'ua or hua meaning original, beginning or egg. Some scholars believe linguistic evidence suggests Islam was introduced to Arnheim Land Aboriginals. Possibly the religion was carried by traders on a return journey, or just that mariners were traveling an ancient trade route to where their words and beliefs originated from. I believe it very plausible that spiritual beliefs were first carried from the east to the west where the religions were developed and taken back along with continuous return journeys.





Ti nga


(obsolete) (the people, tchi Moriori, hu Maori) ti, overcome. E Ra aamiki, te ongo turere, eo turangi, tu-ra-hi. Etinga likely. Patinga, flowing of the tide.





Patinga or

Papata or

pa-ti = pe ta nga > patu


flowing of the tide

Numerous, scattered (M.)

stop people = smash down














eneene utterly consumed, wasted, bear. Ea, appear above water, be flooded, brought to land, reappear. Ene anus. Eo = kutu, parasite of the body, louse, cause to waste away, ill luck. Epa throw caste (Ma-u-i fishing line, propitiates), pelt. (M.)

[We know from the accounts of Pliny the Elder that Ancient Greeks were here 100's of years B.C. and trading likely occurred between here and the Mediterranean thousands of years B.C. Greek enema means washing away with fluid.]





Pi tu


to be able to stand pi used as it means 'to view the landscape', climb. (M.)




A kutus

Kutu he or

Kutu me


kutu(se), ku tu standing on the earth, are the body parasites (people) who are now he, wiped away. Or se is equivalent to me, as if, like, as it were. (M.)




A sia

Tia or



Tia, servant, persistence (regarding those who survive) Niwaniwa, persistent, permanent (M.). Niwa number nine Sikka, Timor-Flores.

kaha, strong, persistent, ridge.

Regarding finding safety kooreke kaukau (able to swim to a hill).

Tiwa = Tiwha, patch, spot, bald. Tiwae, divide cleave separate.

Hia, how many?, surprise and admiration, "He atua, te hia ora i te makariki!" (What an extraordinary fellow to survive.) (M.)

Hiwa watchful, alert, vigoruos of growth. Hiwa number nine Timor-Flores. Various forms of S-'io' as number nine from Mindanao down through Sulawesi to Buton indicate that at this point Gods will is to be reinstated. This would associate better with tia rather than hia. Hiwa, theif (H).




A dasa

(using my rule in its present form haha should be correct. If either of the other two are correct proves two different major directions of language dispersal, one preceding the other.)

Tahi ngahuru or tekau

Dasa means servant in area of India where they worship Hare Krishna.

Haha means, 'seek, look for, search, enquire about, procure' (M.).

A hata is a kite (Nih.) or similarly whata, a 'raised platform' (M.). Wha means sky (Lao). Ha'amonga a Maui (To.). The relationship between Ra and wha (Polyn.) to follow.

Taha, to pass on one side, steal by, [to become subservient and obedient to Ra(ma).] Taha is number one in Tonga. Turu to last a short time turuturu to make firm or permanent, (by removing the weak).

I have encountered different versions of the Basa counting system and may include others later. The Basa counting relates more to the occurrence of Ru arriving on a tsu-nami harbour wave tahuna-mimi sandbank, shoal, beach-stream, creek, make water (M.) opposed to a dry land earthquake often experienced in New Zealand. The type of lice the human race is metaphorically attributed as, although harshly derogitory, may well be justly deserved. [note: the fact that the Nihon word tsunami is written using Chinese kanji that translates directly to English as 'harbour wave' does not necessarily mean that that is what it meant to those who chose that particular calligraphy, but rather that that kangi was the closest they could find to relate a harbour or coast destroying wave. A stream or creek breaks down a sandbank or beach. Also from the 'to and fro' action that occurs between waves and beach we find that tahuna was also used to describe a 'battle-field' (M.).]

KING JAMES BIBLE 1: Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. 2: And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. 3: They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them: 4: But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 5: While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. 6: And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. 7: Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. 8: And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. 9: But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. 10: And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. 11: Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. 12: But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. 13: Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh. 14: For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into a far country, who called his own servants, and delivered unto them his goods. 15: And unto one he gave five talents, to another two, and to another one; to every man according to his several ability; and straightway took his journey. 16: Then he that had received the five talents went and traded with the same, and made them other five talents. 17: And likewise he that had received two, he also gained other two. 18: But he that had received one went and digged in the earth, and hid his lord's money. 19: After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and reckoneth with them. 20: And so he that had received five talents came and brought other five talents, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents: behold, I have gained beside them five talents more. 21: His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. 22: He also that had received two talents came and said, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me two talents: behold, I have gained two other talents beside them. 23: His lord said unto him, Well done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. 24: Then he which had received the one talent came and said, Lord, I knew thee that thou art an hard man, reaping where thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast not strawed: 25: And I was afraid, and went and hid thy talent in the earth: lo, there thou hast that is thine. 26: His lord answered and said unto him, Thou wicked and slothful servant, thou knewest that I reap where I sowed not, and gather where I have not strawed: 27: Thou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the exchangers, and then at my coming I should have received mine own with usury. 28: Take therefore the talent from him, and give it unto him which hath ten talents. 29: For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath. 30: And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 31: When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: 32: And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats: 33: And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. 34: Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: 35: For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: 36: Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. 37: Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink? 38: When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? 39: Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? 40: And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. 41: Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand (Maui), Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: 42: For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink: 43: I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. 44: Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? 45: Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me. 46: And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.

Created by Paul Pearce 2005    Last modified 2006-29-06

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